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Federalism

Coercive Federalism

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Preemptions and Mandates

A preemption is a total or partial federal assumption of power in a particular field, restricting authority of states. A total preemption is federal government's assumption of all regulatory powers in particular field. Partial preemption is state law on same subject is valid unless it collides with federal laws. Standard partial preemption is states permitted to regulate activities regulated by federal government. Most of the United State's federal preemptions rely on the National Supremacy Clause.

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A federal mandate is direct orders to local and state governments to perform an activity. An unfunded mandate imposes costs on state and local governments. Some examples of mandates are Age Discrimination Act of 1986 or National Voter Registration Act 1993.